Edward Said, Orientalism New York: Vintage Books, Introduction Said starts by asserting the fact that the Orient played an instrumental role in the construction of the European culture as the powerful Other: In the Foucaultian tradition, Said suggests to look at Orientalism as a discourse:
In short, 'Western esotericism' is a modern scholarly construct, not an autonomous tradition that already existed out there and merely needed to be discovered by historians.
A hostile critic of various currents of Western thought that had emerged since the Renaissance —among them ParacelsianismWeigelianismand Christian theosophy —in his book he labelled all of these traditions under the category of "Platonic—Hermetic Christianity", arguing that they were heretical to what he saw as true Christianity.
Hanegraaff bornrejection of "occult" topics was seen as a "crucial identity marker" for any intellectuals seeking to affiliate themselves with the academy. Hanegraaffthe term provided a "useful generic label" for "a large and complicated group of historical phenomena that had long been perceived as sharing an air de famille.
Waitewho sought to combine their own mystical beliefs with a historical interpretation of esotericism. He noted that, even if such a true and absolute nature of reality really existed, it would only be accessible through 'esoteric' spiritual practices, and could not be discovered or measured by the 'exoteric' tools of scientific and scholarly enquiry.
This is the idea that there are both real and symbolic correspondences existing between all things within the universe. Faivre argued that all esotericists envision the natural universe as being imbued with its own life force, and that as such they understand it as being "complex, plural, hierarchical".
Faivre believed that all esotericists place great emphasis on both the human imaginationand mediations — "such as rituals, symbolic images, mandalas, intermediary spirits" — and mantras as tools that provide access to worlds and levels of reality existing between the material world and the divine.
Faivre's fourth intrinsic characteristic of esotericism was the emphasis that esotericists place on fundamentally transforming themselves through their practice, for instance through the spiritual transformation that it alleged to accompany the attainment of gnosis.
The first of Faivre's secondary characteristics of esotericism was the belief — held by many esotericists, such as those in the Traditionalist School — that there is a fundamental unifying principle or root from which all world religions and spiritual practices emerge. The common esoteric principle is that by attaining this unifying principle, the world's different beliefs can be brought together in unity.
Faivre's second secondary characteristic was the emphasis on the transmission of esoteric teachings and secrets from a master to their discipline, through a process of initiation.
Kocku von Stuckrad born noted that Faivre's taxonomy was based on his own areas of specialism — Renaissance Hermeticism, Christian Kabbalah, and Protestant Theosophy — and that it was thus not based on a wider understanding of esotericism as it has existed throughout history, from the ancient world to the contemporary period.
Various Gnostic sects existed, and they broadly believed that the divine light had been imprisoned within the material world by a malevolent entity known as the Demiurgewho was served by demonic helpers, the Archons.
It was the Gnostic belief that humans, who were imbued with the divine light, should seek to attain gnosis and thus escape from the world of matter and rejoin the divine source. Advocated by such figures as PlotinusPorphyryIamblichusand ProclusNeoplatonism held that the human soul had fallen from its divine origins into the material world, but that it could progress, through a number of hierarchical spheres of being, to return to its divine origins once more.
Scholars are still unsure of precisely what theurgy involved, although it is known that it involved a practice designed to make gods appear, who could then raise the theurgist's mind to the reality of the divine. The 12th century saw the development of the Kabbalah in southern Italy and medieval Spain.
The medieval period also saw the publication of grimoireswhich offered often elaborate formulas for theurgy and thaumaturgy. Many of the grimoires seem to have kabbalistic influence. Figures in alchemy from this period seem to also have authored or used grimoires.
Ficino went on to translate and publish the works of various Platonic figures, arguing that their philosophies were compatible with Christianity, and allowing for the emergence of a wider movement in Renaissance Platonism, or Platonic Orientalism.
His work was built on by the German Johannes Reuchlin — who authored a prominent text on the subject, De Arte Cabbalistica.
Copernicus' theories were adopted into esoteric strains of thought by Giordano Bruno —whose ideas would be deemed heresy by the Roman Catholic Churcheventually resulting in his public execution. A distinct strain of esoteric thought developed in Germany, where it came to be known as Naturphilosophie ; although influenced by traditions from Late Antiquity and Medieval Kabbalah, it only acknowledged two main sources of authority: Biblical scripture and the natural world.
Instead, Paracelsus urged doctors to learn medicine through an observation of the natural world, although in later work he also began to focus on overtly religious questions.
His work would gain significant support in both areas over the following centuries. There is no evidence that Rosenkreutz was a genuine historical figure, nor that a Rosicrucian Order had ever existed up to that point.
Instead, the manifestos are likely literary creations of Lutheran theologian Johann Valentin Andreae —Unconnected with the Definition of research: Systematic investigative process employed to increase or revise a research study to know the meaning of orientalism current knowledge by discovering new facts Edward Said.
research translation. without examining Orientalism as a discourse one cannot possibly understand the enonnously systematic discipline by which European culture was able to manage-and even produce-the Orient politically, sociologically, militarily, ideologically, scientifically, and imaginatively during the post-Enlightenment period.
There has been considerable discussion about gender and sexuality in Wicca in various places over the years, and I have contributed to some of it. Definition of Orientalism in the metin2sell.com Dictionary.
Meaning of Orientalism. What does Orientalism mean? Proper usage of the word Orientalism. Information about Orientalism in the metin2sell.com dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. Strictly speaking, Orientalism is a field of learned study. In the Christian West, Orientalism is considered to have commenced its formal existence with the decision of the Church Council of  Vienne in to establish a series of chairs in.
Orientalism, by Edward Said, is a controversial and extremely complex book that challenges the standard conventions through which the West portrays the Orient.