For instance, the people who routinely get themselves screened for being a carrier for Tay-Sachs disease are a demographic who have an extremely strong historical reason to be worried about Nazi-style dysgenics, and yet, eugenics is exactly what they are doing whenever a couple of them, on learning that they are both carriers, decide to refrain from having children together, or break off their relationship and seek other, non-carrier partners. The Nazis thought they were practising eugenics.
Development[ edit ] By the age of two years, children normally begin to display the fundamental behaviors of empathy by having an emotional response that corresponds with another person's emotional Autistic spectrum conditions essay. Also during the second year, toddlers will play games of falsehood or "pretend" in an effort to fool others, and this requires that the child know what others believe before he or she can manipulate those beliefs.
According to researchers at the University of Chicago who used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRIchildren between the ages of 7 and 12 years appear to be naturally inclined to feel empathy for others in pain.
Their findings  are consistent with previous fMRI studies of pain empathy with adults. The research also found additional aspects of the brain were activated when youngsters saw another person intentionally hurt by another individual, including regions involved in moral reasoning.
Individuals with autism often find using a theory of mind very difficult e. Empathetic maturity is a cognitive structural theory developed at the Yale University School of Nursing and addresses how adults conceive or understand the personhood of patients.
The theory, first applied to nurses and since applied to other professions, postulates three levels that have the properties of cognitive structures.
The third and highest level is held to be a meta-ethical theory of the moral structure of care. Those adults operating with level-III understanding synthesize systems of Autistic spectrum conditions essay and care-based ethics.
Recent years have seen increased movement toward the idea that empathy occurs from motor neuron imitation. But, how do we account for individual differences in empathy?
It cannot be said that empathy is a single unipolar construct but rather a set of constructs. In essence, not every individual responds equally and uniformly the same to various circumstances.
The Empathic Concern scale assesses "other-oriented" feelings of sympathy and concern and the Personal Distress scale measures "self-oriented" feelings of personal anxiety and unease.
The combination of these scales helps reveal those that might not be classified as empathetic and expands the narrow definition of empathy. Using this approach we can enlarge the basis of what it means to possess empathetic qualities and create a multi-faceted definition.
For instance, functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI has been employed to investigate the functional anatomy of empathy. In their paper, they argue that attended perception of the object's state automatically activates neural representations, and that this activation automatically primes or generates the associated autonomic and somatic responses idea of perception-action-coupling unless inhibited.
This mechanism is similar to the common coding theory between perception and action. Another recent study provides evidence of separate neural pathways activating reciprocal suppression in different regions of the brain associated with the performance of "social" and "mechanical" tasks.
It is possible to see this form of anger as a pro-social emotion. Empathic anger can be divided into two sub-categories: Empathic concern did not, however, significantly predict anger response, and higher personal distress was associated with increased anger. This feeling can be transformed into empathic anger, feelings of injustice, or guilt.
These emotions can be perceived as pro-social, and some say they can be seen as motives for moral behavior. It was found that offenders that had been raised in an environment where they were shown a lack of empathy and had endured the same type of abuse, felt less affective empathy for their victims.
Several different factors are proposed to be at play. A study of high-functioning adults with autistic spectrum disorders found an increased prevalence of alexithymia a personality construct characterized by the inability to recognize and articulate emotional arousal in oneself or others.
Recently, a study has shown that high-functioning autistic adults appear to have a range of responses to music similar to that of neurotypical individuals, including the deliberate use of music for mood management.
Clinical treatment of alexithymia could involve using a simple associative learning process between musically induced emotions and their cognitive correlates. Activity in this area was inversely related to symptom severity in the social domain, suggesting that a dysfunctional mirror neuron system may underlie social and communication deficits observed in autism, including impaired theory of mind and cognitive empathy.
Theory of mind is the ability to understand the perspectives of others. Five different "brain types" can be observed among the population based on the scores, which should correlate with differences at the neural level.
In the E-S theory, autism and Asperger syndrome are associated with below-average empathy and average or above-average systemizing.
|Meltdowns, Shutdowns, and Alexithymia||Minority Children with Autism Less Likely to The purpose of this quantitative article review is to explore multicultural issues in autism.|
|Did Reagan’s Crazy Mental Health Policies Cause Today’s Homelessness?||The Handbook of Autism: The authors are speech and language therapists.|
|Access denied | metin2sell.com used Cloudflare to restrict access||Later, we learned she was actually struggling with mental illness. This came not long after another year-old, this one a man who heard voices and thought people were out to hurt him, walked into the Washington Navy Yard and gunned down 12 people.|
|Key to labels||Often a period of autistic regression begins during or after puberty or during the transition to adulthood late teens to early twenties. Mid-life is also a common time for autistic people to experience burnout or regression.|
|High-Functioning Autism (HFA) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) | Hoagies' Gifted||Autism and Visual Thought Dr.|
The E-S theory has been extended into the Extreme Male Brain theory, which suggests that people with an autism spectrum condition are more likely to have an "Extreme Type S" brain type, corresponding with above-average systemizing but challenged empathy. A study showed that some aspects of autistic neuroanatomy seem to be extremes of typical male neuroanatomy, which may be influenced by elevated levels of fetal testosterone rather than gender itself.
Nor could it explain the similar effect on diagnosed autism for some European migrants America in the s that was reviewed in the s as a shortage of vitamin D was never a problem for these light-skinned immigrants to America.
The decrease of diagnosed autism with the number of years the parents had lived in their new country also cannot be explained by the theory that the cause is genetic no matter if it is said to be caused by actual ethnic differences in autism gene prevalence or a selective migration of individuals predisposed for autism since such genes, if present, would not go away over time.
Some recent fMRI studies have reported that emotion perception deficits in psychopathy are pervasive across emotions positives and negatives. Psychopathic criminals were brain-scanned while watching videos of a person harming another individual.
The psychopaths' empathic reaction initiated the same way it did for controls when they were instructed to empathize with the harmed individual, and the area of the brain relating to pain was activated when the psychopaths were asked to imagine how the harmed individual felt.
The research suggests how psychopaths could switch empathy on at will, which would enable them to be both callous and charming. The team who conducted the study say it is still unknown how to transform this willful empathy into the spontaneous empathy most people have, though they propose it could be possible to bring psychopaths closer to rehabilitation by helping them to activate their "empathy switch".S o.
The child psychologist across the desk has just told you that your three-year-old is "presenting behaviour consistent with that of an individual on the autistic spectrum".
Autistic burnout, it permeates every area of your life. Burnout can happen to anyone at any age, because of the expectation to look neurotypical, to not stim, to be as non-autistic as possible. Autism Spectrum disorders. There is no evidence to support that claim.
Due in large part to Dr. Bernard Rimland, who has an autistic son, founded the Autism Society of America and the Autism Research institute. If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then.
Aug 25, · Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is said to be a “developmental disorder” because symptoms generally appear in the first two years of life. We will write a custom essay sample on Understand how to support individuals with autistic spectrum conditions specifically for you for only $ $/page Order now.
awareness of Autistic Spectrum Conditions Understand the areas in which individuals with an autistic spectrum conditions characteristically have difficulties Describe the types of difficulty that individuals with an autistic spectrum condition may have with language and other ways of communicating The effects of autism on communication are extremely varied.