We require that candidates have at least 3 years of experience in academic writing. English proficiency All candidates take a complex English proficiency test and writing skills test. Supervision Our Quality Assurance Team checks all papers for plagiarism and consistency.
Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. Use the first person I, we rather than the passive voice. Link your ideas into a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Get feedback on your article from colleagues. In this Background section, make the topic interesting by explaining it in plain language and by relating it to actual or potential practical applications.
Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Define and justify the scope of the review: LITERATURE In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscriptand how you found them for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus.
Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary. We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in this review, we were able to obtain the following only in abstract form: Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and draw together results from several papers for each theme.
I have identified four themes for this section: These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to write the review and easier for others to read it. Quality of Published Work Look critically at any published work.
The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy. Some research designs are better than others see Hopkins, a.
The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of sufficient size to detect the smallest worthwhile effects. The weakest findings are those from case studies.
In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by the problem of interpreting cause and effect in the relationship between variables. How subjects were sampled is an important issue. Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to elites.
Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for improvement. There are big differences in the way data can be collected. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments questionnaires.
At the other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability. In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses.
Qualitative assessment is time consuming, so samples are usually small in size and non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in a population.We have enough experience to understand all the specifics of this business.
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HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. Will G Hopkins PhD. Department of Physiology and School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin , New . Bought a 5 page english paper. The writer followed the instructions on what to write for each paragraph.
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