Exposure to conflict

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Exposure to conflict

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The complicity of substance abuse in serious social ills such as crime, domestic violence, and traffic injuries is well established. Recently, however, another threat has come to the attention of the public. This is the threat to children born to women who abuse alcohol and other drugs during their pregnancy.

Experts now estimate that one-half to three-quarters of a million infants are born each year who have been exposed to one or more illicit drugs in utero. The onset of the crack epidemic during the s gave rise to a number of rather dramatic articles in the press that often presented an image of drug-exposed infants and children as "hopeless" members of a "lost generation" Toufexis ; Norris These articles, based largely on anecdotal accounts, helped to fuel a number of misperceptions.

There are an ever-increasing number of drug-exposed children who will in time overrun Head Start programs, early elementary classrooms, and social service agencies. There are permanent neurological, developmental, and behavioral consequences that are Exposure to conflict attributable to prenatal drug exposure.

Preschools and schools are unprepared to effectively control and educate children who were prenatally exposed to drugs. As a result of these portraits of children with intractable deficits, Head Start and public school staff have grown concerned about the unknown numbers of drug-exposed children who might enter their classrooms.

In fact, teachers and administrators report increasing numbers of children who lack social skills and have difficulty keeping pace with routine demands. Some children are persistently withdrawn; others are prone to sudden episodes of violence.

Primed by inaccurate media reports, educators have begun attributing these behaviors, as well as a wide range of other behaviors and developmental delays, to the effects of prenatal drug exposure.

Although prenatal drug exposure has captured a great deal of public attention, prenatal exposure to alcohol is more widespread and has perhaps an even more serious impact. The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 60 percent of women of childbearing age consume alcoholic beverages despite the fact that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is implicated in a wide range of birth defects and developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and visual and auditory impairments.

As they assess the threat that prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs presents to children and schools, policy makers and practitioners must separate myth from fact.

The practice of labeling children should also be avoided since it can lead teachers and parents to have diminished expectations for educational success. Finally, educators and parents need assistance in creating an educational environment that will enable children to fulfill their potential.

EDC to address the needs of administrators and teachers for accurate, up-to-date information on the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. This report also examines what is known about other risk factors that may amplify these effects or produce similar consequences.

The first chapter addresses what the research suggests about the short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The second chapter discusses environmental factors which, by themselves or in combination with the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs, can affect a child's development.

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The third chapter explores the implications for education in preschool and primary grades and describes specialized programs that serve children identified as having been prenatally exposed to alcohol or other drugs, as well as the behavioral and developmental characteristics these children display.

Finally, this report sums up the central findings and suggests ways that this information can guide the development of strategies, techniques, and materials to help teachers and administrators provide children at risk with appropriate and effective educational experiences.

This chapter contains five major sections. It begins with a discussion of some important methodological issues.

Exposure to conflict

A second section examines data on the prevalence of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs. A third section summarizes the current research on the effects of prenatal exposure to five widely used substances: Finally, the relationship between maternal use of alcohol and other drugs and the risk and developmental consequences of preterm and small-for-gestational-age SGA birth is examined.

This chapter ends with some general conclusions on the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs.Hills Criteria of Causation outlines the minimal conditions needed to establish a causal relationship between two items.

These criteria were originally presented by Austin Bradford Hill (), a British medical statistician, as a way of determining the causal link between a specific factor (e.g., cigarette smoking) and a disease (such as emphysema or lung cancer).

CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO VERBAL AGGRESSION AND DESENSITIZATION TO CONFLICT IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD A Dissertation in Communication Arts and Sciences research highlighting how exposure to conflict affects children, and I describe the mechanisms conflict can extend beyond the family unit and contribute to .


Rosati. History of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence. Under the leadership of then-Deputy Attorney General Eric Holder in June conflict on the acceptance and experience of domestic violence, we employ a difference-in- differences strategy that exploits geographic variation in conflict intensity across sub-national regions and variation in exposure to conflict events across birth cohorts.

“Conflict experiences can be beneficial, by alleviating tension and avoiding conflict escalation, reducing communication apprehension, and contributing to closeness within the relationship.

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