Veterinarians have found that stress plays a role in causing outbreaks of URI, and cats in any shelter, cattery or boarding facility are generally experiencing high levels of stress. Cats who have recovered from URI can become carriers, and may experience recurrences when stressed. Certain breeds like Persians and other flat-faced breeds have a predisposition to develop upper respiratory infections due to their facial structure.
Classification[ edit ] A URI may be classified by the area inflamed. Rhinitis affects the nasal mucosa, while rhinosinusitis or sinusitis affects the nose and paranasal sinusesincluding frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses. Nasopharyngitis rhinopharyngitis or the common cold affects the narespharynxhypopharynxuvulaand tonsils generally.
Without involving the nose, pharyngitis inflames the pharynx, hypopharynx, uvula, and tonsils. Similarly, epiglottitis supraglottitis inflames the superior portion of the larynx and supraglottic area; laryngitis is in the larynx; laryngotracheitis is in the larynx, trachea, and subglottic area; and tracheitis is in the trachea and subglottic area.
Symptoms of URTIs commonly include coughsore throatrunny nosenasal congestionheadachelow-grade feverfacial pressure and sneezing. Symptoms of rhinovirus in children usually begin 1—3 days after exposure.
The illness usually lasts 7—10 more days. Strep throat does not usually cause runny nose, voice changes, or cough. Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle ear infection otitis media and the reddening of the eye caused by viral conjunctivitis are often associated with upper respiratory infections.
Cause[ edit ] In terms of pathophysiology, rhino virus infection resembles the immune response. The viruses do not cause damage to the cells of the upper respiratory tract but rather cause changes in the tight junctions of epithelial cells. This allows the virus to gain access to tissues under the epithelial cells and initiate the innate and adaptive immune responses.
Sexually transmitted infections have emerged as causes of oral and pharyngeal infections.The upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are the infections that affect the upper respiratory tract.
The upper respiratory tract consists of nose and the nasal passage, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx and that part of the larynx which is above the vocal cords. Most infections are viral in nature and in other instances the cause is bacterial.
Upper respiratory tract infections can also be fungal or helminth in origin, but these are far less common.
Between and , billion cases . Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are contagious infections involving the nose, throat, sinuses, pharynx or larynx. Some commonly known URIs include the common cold, nasal obstruction, a sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, epiglottitis, tracheobronchitis, sinusitis and otitis media..
Most URIs are viral in nature and tend to spread easily from one individual to another. Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are contagious infections caused by a variety of bacteria and viruses such as influenza (the flu), strep, rhinoviruses, whooping cough, and diphtheria.
Bacterial causes of URIs can be treated and cure with antibiotics, but viral infections can not. Upper Respiratory Infection or Upper Respiratory Tract Infection is viral or bacterial infection in any of the components of upper respiratory tract, like trachea, larynx, pharynx, sinuses etc.
Most of the Upper Respiratory Infections are caused by viral infections and tend to spread easily from one individual to another. Upper respiratory infections in the lower part of the upper respiratory tract, such as, laryngotracheitis, are more commonly featured with dry cough and hoarseness or loss of voice.
Barking or whooping cough, gagging, rib pain (from severe cough) are other symptoms and signs.
|Topics under Upper Respiratory Tract Infection||Tweet NaturalNews It is almost the peak of the winter season here in the Northern Hemisphere, which means coughs, colds, influenza, and various other respiratory ailments are on the rise.|
|How do you treat a lower respiratory infection? | HowStuffWorks||Next Two of the most common lower respiratory infections are bronchitis and pneumonia. If you are feeling feverish, and if you have body aches, a cough with phlegm, congestion, tightness in the chest and a loss of appetite, you may have one of these conditions.|
|Steam Inhalation||The respiratory tract, like other organs also undergoes significant changes during pregnancy.|
|Upper respiratory tract infection - Wikipedia||Who is at risk for acute respiratory infection? The immune systems of children and older adults are more prone to being affected by viruses.|
|related stories||Immediate access to this article To see the full article, log in or purchase access. Reprints are not available from the authors.|