Although there is a wide range of normal ages, girls typically begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11; boys at ages 11— A substantial product of testosterone metabolism in males is estradiol. The conversion of testosterone to estradiol depends on the amount of body fat and estradiol levels in boys are typically much lower than in girls. The male "growth spurt" also begins later, accelerates more slowly, and lasts longer before the epiphyses fuse.
Terminology[ edit ] Coined by psychology professor Jeffrey Arnett, emerging adulthood has been known variously as "transition age youth",   "delayed adulthood",  "extended adolescence", "youthhood",  "adultolescence",  and "the twixter years".
This is because people in this age group in the United States typically live at home with their parents, are undergoing pubertal changes, attend middle schools and high schools and are involved in a "school-based peer culture".
All of these characteristics are no longer normative after the age of 18, and it is, therefore, considered inappropriate to call young adults "adolescence" or "late adolescence". Furthermore, in the United States, the age of 18 is the age at which people are able to legally vote and citizens are granted full rights upon turning 21 years of age.
Emerging adults are still in the process of obtaining an education, are unmarried, and are childless. By age thirty, most of these individuals do see themselves as adults, based on the belief that they have more fully formed "individualistic qualities of character" such as self-responsibility, financial independence, and independence in decision-making.
The process of identity formation emerges in adolescence but mostly takes place in emerging adulthood. Regarding love, although adolescents in the United States usually begin dating between ages 12 and 14, they usually view this dating as recreational.
It is not until emerging adulthood that identity formation in love becomes more serious. Because emerging adults have the possibility of having numerous work experiences, they are able to figure out what type of work they are good at as well find what type of work they want to pursue for the rest of their life.
However, emerging adults who have attended college or university have been exposed to and have considered different worldviews, and eventually commit to a worldview that is distinct from the worldview with which they were raised by the end of their college or university career.
Regarding residential status, emerging adults in the United States have very diverse living situations. Some emerging adults end up moving back home after college graduation, which tests the demographic of dependency.
During college, they may be completely independent, but that could quickly change afterwards when they are trying to find a full-time job with little direction on where to start their career.
Biological changes[ edit ] Emerging adulthood and adolescence differ significantly with regard to puberty and hormonal development. Emerging adults have reached a stage of full hormonal maturity and are fully, physically equipped for sexual reproduction.
Emerging adulthood is usually thought of as a time of peak physical health and performance as individuals are usually less susceptible to disease and more physically agile during this period than later stages of adulthood.
However, emerging adults are generally more likely to contract sexually transmitted infectionsas well as to adopt unhealthy behavioral patterns and lifestyle choices.
Many connections within the brain are strengthened and those that are unused are pruned away. Areas of the brain used for planning and for processing risk and rewards also undergo important developments during this stage.
This is due to the fact that they make fewer impulsive decisions and rely more on planning and evaluating of situations. While brain structures continue to develop during emerging adulthood, the cognition of emerging adults is an area that receives the majority of attention.
Arnett explains, "Emerging adulthood is a critical stage for the emergence of complex forms of thinking required in complex societies. At this stage, emerging adults often decide on a particular worldview and are able to recognize that other perspectives exist and are valid as well.
Abnormal development[ edit ] Much research has been directed at studying the onset of lifetime DSM disorders to dispel the common thought that most disorders begin earlier in life.
Because of this reasoning, many people that show signs of disorders do not seek help due to its stigmatization. The research shows that those with various disorders will not feel symptoms until emerging adulthood. Most onsets at this age will not be, or become, comorbid.
The median onset interquartile range of substance use disorders is 18—27, while the median onset age is The median onset age of mood disorders is Often, patients will not seek help until several years of symptoms have passed, if at all.
Typically, symptoms of more severe disorders, such as major depressionbegin at age 25 as well. Major efforts have been taken to educate the public and influence those with symptoms to seek treatment past adolescence.
There is minimal but intriguing evidence that those who attend college appear to have less of a chance of showing symptoms of DSM-IV disorders.
In one study, "they were significantly less likely to have a diagnosis of drug use disorder or nicotine dependence". In addition, "bipolar disorder was less common in individuals attending college".
However, other research reports that chance of alcohol abuse and addiction is increased with college student status. As a child switches from the role of a dependent to the role of a fellow adult, the family dynamic changes significantly.
Granting this recognition assists the increasingly independent offspring in forming a strong sense of identity and exploration at a time when it is most crucial.
A parent-child relationship of higher quality often results in greater affection and contact in emerging adulthood. Divorce and remarriage of parents often result in a weaker parent-child relationship,  even if no adverse effects were apparent during childhood. Many people over the age of 18 still require financial support in order to further their education and career,  despite an otherwise independent lifestyle.
Furthermore, emotional support remains important during this transition period. Parental engagement with low marital conflict results in better adjustment for college students.Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide [Sharan B.
Merriam, Rosemary S. Caffarella, Lisa M.
Baumgartner] on metin2sell.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In this updated landmark book, the authors have gathered the seminal work and most current thinking on adult learning into one volume. Learning in Adulthood addresses a .
Later Adulthood Development Report Later adulthood is the time after age 65 or the last segment of life. This doesn’t mean life ends, rather it’s a new beginning or a new chapter of your life.
This is such a diverse age range. Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Later Adulthood Development Report. A new book makes the case for a phase of development between adolescence and adulthood.
Teens who try to act older than their age might gain popularity early on but are more likely to have problems with drugs and alcohol and engage in . The definitive work on a groundbreaking study, this essential volume provides a coherent picture of the complexity of development from birth to adulthood.