Some writers escaped the country to spend the remaining years of the war in the safety of exile or with the Free French Forces. Others, faithful to political options made during the previous decade, moved directly into collaboration.
Medieval period The origins of vernacular writing Bywhen the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula began, Latin spoken there had begun its transformation into Romance. These jarchas provide evidence of a popular poetry begun perhaps as early as the 10th century, and they are related to traditional Spanish lyric types e.
Vernacular chroniclers mention many other heroic minstrel narratives, now lost, but, as a result of the incorporation of these narratives into chronicles, themes and textual passages can be reconstructed. The beginnings of prose A major influence on prose was exercised by Arabic.
Oriental learning entered Christian Spain with the capture of Toledo from the Muslims, and the city became a centre of translation from Oriental languages. A romance of the Seven Sages, the Sendebar, was translated likewise through Arabic, with other collections of Eastern stories.
A propitious intellectual atmosphere fomented the founding of universities, and under Alfonso X of Castile and Leon reigned —84 vernacular literature achieved prestige.
Alfonso, in whose chancery Castilian replaced Latin, mandated translations and compilations aimed at fusing all knowledge—Classical, Oriental, Hebrew, and Christian—in the vernacular.
Alfonso X, 13th-century manuscript illumination. The Book of Count Lucanor and Patronio —which consists of 51 moral tales variously didactic, amusing, and practical—drew partly on Arabic, Oriental, and popular Spanish sources. Eustace, the Roman general miraculously converted to Christianity.
It enthralled the popular imagination through the 16th century with its sentimental idealism, lyrical atmosphere, and supernatural adventure. The result mingled eroticism with devotion and invited readers to interpret often-equivocal teachings. Ruiz handled alexandrine metre with new vigour and plasticity, interspersing religious, pastoral-farcical, amorous, and satirical lyrics of great metrical variety.
More-exotic elements appeared in the Proverbios morales c. Numerous examples from medieval Spanish literature and folklore echoed the same themes e. The 15th century The early 15th century witnessed a renewal of poetry under Italian influence.
The collection showed not merely the decadence of Galician-Portuguese troubadours but also the stirrings of more-intellectual poetry incorporating symbol, allegoryand Classical allusions in the treatment of moral, philosophical, and political themes.
Francisco Imperial, a Genoese who settled in Sevilla and a leader among new poets, drew on Danteattempting to transplant the Italian hendecasyllable syllable line to Spanish poetry. He is still acknowledged as a precursor of the Renaissance, though his sonnets and long poems, which reflect his Italian-influenced training, are often neglected in favour of his charming rustic songs of native inspiration.
Written with greater satiric force than other works that treated the dance of death theme, it introduced characters e. Although not intended for dramatic presentation, it formed the basis for later dramas.
The early Spanish humanists included the first grammarians and lexicographers of any Romance tongue. The dominant character, the procuress Celestina, is depicted with unsurpassed realism and gives the work the title by which it is commonly known, La Celestina.
Poetry Surviving for centuries in the oral tradition, Spanish ballads romances link medieval heroic epic to modern poetry and drama. The earliest datable romances—from the midth century, although the romance form itself has been traced to the 11th century—treated frontier incidents or lyrical themes.Spanish literature, the body of literary works produced in metin2sell.com works fall into three major language divisions: Castilian, Catalan, and Galician.
This article provides a brief historical account of each of these three literatures and examines the emergence of major genres.. Although literature in the vernacular was not written until the medieval period, .
Start studying Ideologies and Upheavals Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ==> alarmed the middle-class and made the socialist revolution appear doubly dangerous because it was now calling for a liberation of women and workers Leader of English romanticism.
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