Then you are not fit to live. You might be 38 years old as I happen to be, and one day you are called upon to stand up for some great principle or cause, and you refuse because you are afraid.
Simple to design and implement. The identification of a poverty line is described below. The BNS combines two aspects of peoples lives: Both have consequences for the quality of their lives.
Its design built on earlier work by poverty researchers in the UK and Sweden See below How does it work? The BNS is a survey method, but this section does not explain how to do surveys. It only explains the central part of the BNS method At the planning stage Develop a menu of things, activities and services that could be considered as basic necessities.
Ideally the items to be included on this menu should be identified through consultation with a range of people, including potential survey respondents. Small group discussions may be the best means of generating potential menu items. Examples of things, activities and services could include: For example, a health centre that is open seven days a week.
The items on the menu should range from those that almost everyone might agree are basic necessities to those that few will think are basic necessities, but perhaps more people will think so in the future.
For example items like a television or a mobile phone. It is useful because it helps to define a poverty line using the BNS survey results, but it is not essential.
A decision by majority rule. Most people did not consider these items as basic necessities. For all the rest give each item a weighting, which is equal to the percentage of people who said it is a basic necessity.
Add up the weightings for all these items. This figure would represent the raw BNS score for an imagined household that had everything on the menu that has been democratically defined as a basic necessity.
For each actual household, add up the weightings for all the items on the menu now defined as basic necessities that they said they had. This is their raw BNS score Convert this raw score into a percentage of the maximum possible raw score step 1. This describes the average depth or degree of poverty.
Typically many will be poor in some respect lacking a few basic necessities, and a few will be poor in many respects lacking most basic necessities. However, the specific shape of the distribution will vary from community to community, and over time. This enables a head-count measure of poverty, which can complement the depth-of-poverty measure which 3.
People below it are defined as poor. This method assumes that while individual respondents may make errors of judgement about their poverty status, these errors are equally distributed. Some poor people class themselves as not-poor, and some not-poor describe themselves as poor.
The following graph uses the data.
Potential limitations Do different sections of the community have different views about what things are basic necessities? For example, women may have different views to men?
High levels of agreement were found across age groups and gender in the UK. In societies without pervasive mass media, or with more fragmented and isolated communities, there might be less consensus on expectations.
If they dont know how others live, how can they have such expectations? That is, there is very little evidence of people reporting that they had chosen not to possess any of the socially perceived necessities.
These are not an essential part of the BNS process. They are simply extra options for analysis of BNS data, once collected. The BNS survey was of a rural community in central Vietnam.Samaa TV Live Samaa News Live Online Streaming free from Pakistan in Urdu.
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Cirerol and he shares his experiences learned from living in his car for over a year. While most of us might not find the idea of living in a car appealing, I think Javier has some lessons to share that might help some of us if we are forced to live in austere conditions at some point in our lives.
The more we own, the more we have to take care of. This holds true for our possessions as well as the size of our home. In the early days of our marriage, when Mr. FW and I lived in a small basement apartment, all I could think about was how great it would be when we could finally upgrade to a two-bedroom, larger apartment above ground (with actual natural light!).